Hinohara village's ancient history footsteps
  revealed by the place names.

    Hinohara village was progressed region
    in Kanto region in Japan more than 1000 years ago.
《 For many maps, it may takes a little time to switch the screen. 》
guide: Komakitsu Okabe
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  Tamesasda-Yashiki  The place was named after Prince Tamesada ? !

The square before the Yasaka shrine in Koiwa district in Hinohara village is called "Tamesada-Yashiki (Tamesada's mansion)".

The square, a big one in Hinohara village, was called "Oji-ga-Shiro (Prince Castle )" in past, and the east-flowing small river of the square is called "Oji-Gawa (Prince River)" even now.

【 Fields before Yasaka shrine. 】
In process examining the person called "Tamesada" and the person called "Prince", I found the person who was one of the sons of th second child of Emperor Murakami of 62th generation, the grandson of Emperor Murakami.

He was called "Tamesada", in other words he was "Prince Tamesada".

【 Family trees of Tamesada 】
村上天皇: Emperor Murakami  源為定: Tamesada

より大きな地図で タメサダやしき を表示
【 Tamesada mansion 】
The square before the Yasaka shrine is called "Tamesada-Yashiki (Tamesada mansion)", and it was called "Oji-ga-Shiro "(Prince Castle) in the past.
 The part enclosed
 by red line □.

River marked by is called "Oji-Gawa (Prince River)".

■Helpful Site  (in Japanese)
 為平親王 - Wikipedia

  Minamoto-no Tumura came to Hinohara village during Anna-Incident.

The Emperor Murakami had three princes.

After the Emperor Murakami died, his first child Prince Norihira (憲平) became the 63rd Emperor Reisen (冷泉天皇), but abdicated two years later in sickness.

On that occasion, Fujiwara family feared that Second Prince Tamehira (為平親王) may become the next emperor.

The wife of Prince Tamehira was a daughter of Minamoto-no Takaakira (源高明) who was the younger brother of Emperor Murakami. Therefore, Mr. Fujiwara feared a possibility that the power of Minamoto-no-Takaakira (源高明) may become stronger if Prince Tamehira (為平親王) becomes the next emperor, and Mr. Fujiwara caused Anna-Incident in 969.

After Anna-Incident, Minamoto-no Takaakira (源高明) was relegated to Kyushu, Prince Tamehira (為平親王), the second child, did not become an emperor, and Prince Morihira (守平親王), the third child, became 64th Emperor Enyu (圓融天皇) .

In Anna-Incident, those who showed the loyalty to Minamoto-no Takaakira (源高明) were also arrested.

However, Minamoto-no Tumura (源連) who was one of them, were not known the whereabout. He perhaps escaped to Koiwa in Hinohara village at that time.

Minamoto-no Tumura escaped to Koiwa beacause the place was a better place to live. It was the palce where Shukube-no Shosho Takayasu inhabited and were spending peacefull days for many years. It was the place hidden away in the world, but had a connection with Kyoto.

(Note: Minamoto-no Takaakira (源高明) was the person who was said to be the model for the hero of "Tale of Genji" written by Murasaki Shikibu.)

■Helpful Sites   (in Japanese)
 為平親王 - Wikipedia     安和の変 - Wikipedia


  Minamoto-no Tumura guided Prince Tamesada to Hinohara village.

Why Minamoto-no Tamesada (源為定) escaped and lived in Koiwa in Hinohara village?

Prince Tamesada came and settled in Koiwa because Minamoto-no Tumura (源連) brought him. Prince Tamesada became a settler of Koiwa after Anna Changes by the advice of Minamoto-no Tumura (源連).

At that time, Prince Tamehira's home in Kyoto was not easy because of many children, so that they accepted Minamoto-no Tumura's invitation to Hinohara village.

【 Prince Tamehira and his children. 】
為平親王: Prince Tamehira   源為定: Minamoto-no Tamesada

Why Prince Tamesada escaped and lived in Koiwa in Hinohara valley?

Prince Tamesada was invited to Koiwa by Minamoto-no Tumura who had been a warrior in Kyoto.

Minamoto-no Tumura is one of descendants of the emperor, and one of the loyal people of Minamoto-no Takaakira. Minamoto-no Tumura was one of members who escaped from the Fujiwara when Minamoto-no Takaakira exiled to Kyushu in Anna-Incident. And he lived hidden in Koiwa and was not arrested by Fujiwara.

Minamoto-no Tumura escaped to Koiwa because he had friendship with Maj. Gen. Takayasu and Mr. Tachibana who were there from Nara era, and yet he had friendship with people even after Kyoto became the capital in Heian era.

Minamoto-no Tumura escaped to Koiwa with the assistance of Maj. Gen. Takayasu and Mr. Tachibana in Koiwa.

Minamoto-no TumuraMaj. Gen. Takayasu and Mr. Tachibana

Meanwhile, at the time, Prince Tamehira (為平親王) was not easy at living with many children in Kyoto, and Minamoto-no Takaakira (源高明) had few life expectancy and small forces in Kyoto. Minamoto-no Takaakira heard of life of Minamoto-no Tsumura (源連) in Kanto (Hinohara valley), and he asked Minamoto-no Tsumura to take care of the third son, Tamesada. So that, Tamesada came to Koiwa.

Minamoto-no TamesadaMinamoto-no Tumura

Tumura (連) prepared a mansion in front of Yasaka Shrine in Koiwa for Tamesada. And it was called "Tamesada mansion (Tamesada Yashiki)", and the place is so called even today. This place was called "Prince Castle", and the eastern small river is known as "Prince river (Oji Gawa)" even today.

Cornerstones of the torii at the entrance of Yasaka Shrine have been reported as the cornerstones of old Prince Tamesada's mansion.

【 Yasaka Shrine (八坂神社) 】

より大きな地図で 八坂神社 を表示
【 Cornerstones of the torii 】


  Tamesada came to Koiwa in Hinohara village from Kyoto via Hachioji.

The party of Tamesada who headed towards Koiwa in Hinohara valley from Kyoto, decided to sojourn a while in the west of Hachioji.

It is because the house (palace) for constant live in Koiwa is not yet prepared.

Three months or six months later, the party moved to Koiwa when Tamesada was eight years old.

So this place was called "eight years old Prince". When the place name of Hachioji was given, "years old" was removed and called "eight Prince

■Helpful Sites   (in Japanese)
The above description about "the origin of the name of Hachioji" is different from Hachioji City HP (八王子市公式ホームページ) . Refer to the column under this section.

The Tamesada party passed through Mt Ippochi (市道山) and Sasadaira (笹平) in South valley. An old woman in Sasadaira reported me that the prince party passed through the place in past.
 八王子 (Hachioji)
 小岩 (Koiwa)
【 Hachioji → Hinohara (guessed) route 】

より大きな地図で 為定一行 八王子 → 檜原 ルート を表示

Prince Tamesada came to Sengen-pass (浅間峠) and headed to Koiwa (小岩) in North valley.

The south of Sengen-pass (浅間峠) of Mt Matsubae (松生山) was reported by an old man as "Here's the road to Kashiwagino (柏木野)". People could be out Sengen-pass through Kashiwagino (柏木野) from Sasadaira (笹平).

Tamesada's party came over the hill toward the new house to live in Koiwa.

Note: The origin of the city name of "Hachioji".)

Picking up from "Hachioji city website" and Komakitsu Okabe's explanations,

matters relating to the name of the "Hachioji" are arranged in chronological order.

That is ...

black: Description of the Hachioji city website.
red: Komakitsu Okabe's explanations.
A.D. (year)

God appeared accompanied by eight children.

Mt. Fukazawa was named as the peak of King, and the eight surrounding peaks were named as prince peaks, and shrines were constructed in each mountains. In that way, people began to enshrine the cow-head-God and the eight princes.
approx 988

Prince Tamesada sojourned a while in Hachioji.

"Hachioji" which is left as an oldest record is a letter by Mr. Ujiyasu Hojo.


  Minamoto-no Tumura escaped from Kyoto during an incident ? !

Minamoto-no Takaakira (源高明) was relegated to Kyushu (A.D.969-971), but he was allowed to come back to Kyoto in April 972.

It was perhaps because the third son Prince Morihira (守平親王) became 64th Emperor Enyu (圓融天皇), the Fujiwara allowed to do so.

It happend after Minamoto-no Takaakira was relegated to Kyushu in 969. Just when the loyal people of Minamoto-no Takaakira were to be arrested, approx 34m wide fence fell suddenly at the east of Kyoto one day, and Kyoto became on chaos.

Minamoto-no Tumura and other members tried to escape away from Kyoto during this trouble, and went away to rural areas.

Minamoto-no Tumura escaped away to Koiwa in Hinohara valley and was not arrested.

Minamoto-no Takaakira (源高明) died in 982. Before that he asked Minamoto-no Tumura who was living in Hinohara valley to take care of Tamesada (為定), the third son of Tamehira (為平).

Minamoto-no Tumura (源連) was a descendant of the Emperor, and was very familyer with Minmoto-no Takaakira (源高明) and Tamesada (為定), and was trusted by them.

Minamoto-no Tumura was a captain in the imperial court.
And yet, his aunt was the mother of Minamoto-no Takaakira,
his yonger sister was the wife of Takaakira,
in other words, Takaakira was closely related as a cousin and a brother in low to Tumura. )


  Mr. Takayasu, the head of the Protecting Army in Kanto in Japan.

Hinohara village was the name given at the Edo era, and about 400 years have past after that. Before that, the village was known as Valley Hinohara, having a 900-year history.

In Yamato era before Nara era (A.D.710-794), Yamato troops were in Mt. Takayasu (高安山) located between Osaka and Nara to prevent foreign enemy troops.

At around A.D.730 in Nara Era, Yamato troop which was preventing foreign enemy was divided into the military which served the imperial court and the military which protected the Kanto region, so that a part of them moved to live in the valley Hinohara. It seems to be around A.D.730-740.
【 Mt. Takayasu (高安山) 】

より大きな地図で 高安山 を表示

People who lived in Hinohara were led by the major general, Shukube-no Shosho Takayasu, and Tachibana Army.  Because region from Kanoto to Motoshuku was ruled by Tachibana Army, the name "Tachibana" remained as the name of the bridge in Motoshuku even now.

(Note: The bridge in the below map of "the birthplace of Akiru " is "Tachibana Bridge".)

The river in Hinohara North and South valley is called Okawa, flowing together in the east of Motoshuku (本宿). Looking the point, Tachibana named it as follows,

 The turning point as "A(阿)",
 Divided river as "Ki (伎)",
 Stayed flow as "Ru (留)", and

as a total, the point was called
"A-ki-ru (阿伎留)".

Even now, the name of "Akiru" is remained here and there near the place. And the river's name was changed to Akigawa through many years.

  【 The birthplace of "Akiru" 】

より大きな地図で 阿伎留 の発祥地 を表示

Akiru (阿伎留)

Akiru (秋留)

Akigawa (秋川)

flow of
the river


【 "Akiru" (阿伎留) seen from Tachibana bridge 】

Takayasu had power in the west part from Ozawa.

For example, there is a silkworm mound at Kuwabara (桑原) in Koiwa,
and the ruins of grain warehouse at "Prince Castle".
【 Kuwabara (桑原)  
 and "Prince Castle"

より大きな地図で 「桑原」 と 「王子が城」 を表示

Note: The mound of silkworm at Kuwahara, and a grain warehouse at the Prince Castle are unconfirmed and under investigation.)

District name "Henbori" in South valley came from a Korean language. And there are the five Buddhas and respected for the production of the Nara period, and they have been enshrined in Gosha Shrine.

They are next five Buddhas.
・ Dainichinyorai (大日如来)
・ Hudomyoou (不動明王)
・ Gozumyoou (牛頭明王)
・ Kongoyanyomyoou (金剛夜如明王)
・ Guntarimyoou (軍多利明王)

But Guntarimyoou (軍多利明王) is missing.

【 Gosha Shrine (五社神社) 】

より大きな地図で 五社神社 を表示
There was a silkworm mound at the place called "Inamura (稲村)" in Henbori (人里), and it still remain.

There is a silkworm mound at the place callled "Kashiwagino" (柏木野). There is a place the stone was placed for a granary near the place.

There is a place called "Hattate" (woven silk ) where old fabric and fifty human facies are remained even now near Aki River (秋川).
Inamura  Kashiwagino  Hattate
稲村, 柏木野, はったて 】

より大きな地図で 稲村、柏木野、はったて を表示

It was a natural result that Minamoto-no Tumura moved to live hidden in Hinohara Valley remaining powers of Takayasu (高安), and brought Princde Tamesada (為定王子) to the valley to live there.

Note: The mound of silkworm at Henbori (人里), and the mound of silkworm and a grain warehouse at Kashiwagino (柏木野), are unconfirmed and under investigation.)

■Helpful Sites   (in Japanese)

  Yasaka Shrine was enshrined at the instruction of Imperial court.

When Genji Hachimantaro Yoshiie (源氏八幡太郎義家) headed to conquer the northen part of the main island of Japan in 1055 AD, Shukube-no Shosho Takayasu (宿辺少将高安) was also ordered to join the army but could not to do so because of the plague was going around.

Then after, imperial goverment ordered to prepare the Yasaka Shrine in Hinohara valley.

【 Yasaka Shrine (八坂神社) 】

より大きな地図で 八坂神社 を表示
This was because not an ordinary soldier, but Prince Tamesada (為定王子) seems to be buried.

When Prince Tamesada (為定王子) died and buried in Sengen (浅間) near Koiwa (小岩), all people of the village followed through to the mountainside with sadness and said goodby.

The place where peple of the village said goodbye to the prince without going up the pass of Sengen (浅間峠) was called "Wakasare" (the place where they said goodbye), and there is a large stone there.

Prince Tamesada was enshrined in Fujimine Sengen (富士嶺浅間) , and was treasured by many people from Hinohara valley and the nearby places. Stone statues which were made for the tomb were taken away around the Hinohara village in the Edo period.

Criminals were punished after taking away the stones.
【 Wakasare (別かされ) 】

より大きな地図で 別かされ を表示
(The exact location is unknown.)

The mountain which are seen in front of the place where the prince buried was named "Gozen yama" (御前山) (= the mountain before the Prince) . The place called "Yukubo" became the entrance to the mountain, and a stone shrine was prepared there and named "Gozen-Suzu-Jinja".

The flag at the Native Village Museum is the flag erected near the shrine during the festival of the shrine named "Gozen-Suzu-Jinja".

 ・ You can see the flag of the shrine if you ask at the reception of Hinohara Native Village Museum to show it.

 ・ The shrine "Gozen-Suzu-Jinja" is introduced in the the site " 狼-3 武藏・奥多摩地方のオオカミ " (mountain wolfs in Okutama).

 ・ The large flag is not for the small shirine but for Mt. Gozen (Gozen-yama). This is the story explained by Mr. Komakitsu Okabe.
【 Flag of the shrine 】
 ・ 鑾(Suzu) = 1.Bells attached to the vehicle of emperor.
             2.The vehicle of emperor.  )

Starting point for Mt. Gozen (Gozen-yama) ascent on the west side is called "Sougakuzawa".  And the area is called Prince's hair over the ear.

The object of worship of Yasaka Shrine is Prince Susananoo (Susanoo-no-Mikoto), the god of epidemic.

より大きな地図で 御前山、ゆくぼ、・・・ を表示

■Helpful Sites   (in Japanese)

  Gozen-Yama (御前山)  The mountain in front of the Prince

When Prince Tamesada died in "Prince Castle" in Koiwa, villagers were in deep pain together. And the prince was buried on the top Mt. Fujimine-sengen.

For deep worship to the prince, the highest mountain in front of the tomb was concidered as the personal appearance of the Prince and called "Gozen-Yama" (the mountain in front of the prince).

Villagers made Gozen-suzu-jinja (御前鑾神社 = Prince's Shrine in front of the tomb ) with two guard dogs and made important festivals in the area.  The shrine is located at gateway to Mt. Gozen (= the mountain in front of the prince).

Fujikura which is located at the west of Mt. Gozen is called "Sougakuzawa" (惣岳沢), and was representing the hair of the head in other words Prince's head and ear. Because Mt. Gozen is located just in front of Sengen-Pass where Prince Tamesada was buried, the mountain was defined for representing the prince.
The altitude is 1405m, second highest in Hinohara Village.

■Helpful Sites   (in Japanese)
 Gozen-suzu-jinja (御前鑾神社 = Prince's Shrine in front of the tomb ) is introduced in the site 狼-2  奥多摩山中の狼 .


  Nearly 50 years blank of Prince Tamesada.

4-50 years (over 50 years maybe?) until Prince Tamesada’s death after his hide and living in Koiwa are not known well.

During the period, good years continued because Prince Tamesada encouraged people to
・give precedence to the elder with the mind of reverence toward God and respect to ancesters,
・deference to labor,
・encourage to work together with friendship,
and the period was peace and stable and he gained the trust of the people.

The material which may be be inferred about the life during the period would be considered.

"Ouji-ga-shiro" ( Prince Castle) was unearthed in around 1975.

In that occasion, the relics came about 1m from the ground were considered not only relics of the "Jomon" period but after that period. The physician Shinsaku Koizumi, born at Fujikura in Hinohara village, who unearthed the relics told me "The significance of this legacy will be left to Okabe" when I was observing their working.

25 years since then, the verifying the meaning of the remaining relics was not obtained.

Now, going on this home page about the Castle of Prince Tamesada, the relics are considered as the relics of Prince Tamesada period because they were unearthed at the place called "Tamasada-Yashiki" (the Castle of Prince Tamesada) . The need remains to examine further and this time I disucuss considering relics are of Prince Tamesada period.

People involved in the excavation were Mr. Eiichi Tsuchiya (土屋栄一) and Seiichi Mori (清水盛一).

Note: The following is a history told by Mr. Komakitsu Okabe. )

25 years ago, "the Castle Prince" was excavated by a physician Shinsaku Koizumi who were born at Hujikura in Hinohara village. (It was because he thought something in the name of "The Castle Prince".)
Relics were different from those of "Jomon" period unearthed in Hinohara village. Because of that physician Shinsaku Koizumi told to Mr. Okabe "Giving the significance to these relics will be left to you".
A few years later, when Mr. Okabe met by chance Mr. Fujishige Shimizu who were the landlord on the corner of "Prince Castle", he was told by him "This is Tamesa-Yayashiki". However, its meaning is not clear for Mr. Okabe at that time.
A few years later, a member of the same Hinohara Cultural Heritage Committee said to Mr. Okabe "Who is the Prince of "Castle Prince"?.
About three years ago, Mr. Okabe discovered that a specific person who has no accompanying note in the family tree in the process of studying various things.

He reached to the idea that
"Tamesadayashiki = Tamesada-Yashiki = Tamesada Castle ?!".
Now, on this website, Mr. Okabe presented that
Oujigashiro = Tamesadayshiki = Tamesada Castle.

  Time series representation.

Note: the time series of the movement of the people related to Tamesada is as the following figure. )

 Minamoto-no Tamesada (around A.D.981? - 1045? ) died
 (at around the age of 64 year old ?).
 The tomb was buried for Minamoto-no Tamesada is around A.D.1050?

 A few years later, due to the background of Prince Tamesada,
 Yasaka Shrine for God of Plague was inshrined by imperial order.
 This is Mr. Komakitsu Okabe's theory.

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